4 Information Sources for Evidence-Based Leadership & Management (ELM)

The term “evidence-based” was originally employed in the field of Medicine to guide how Doctors make decisions regarding patient care. Evidence-based management improves a leader’s decisions by disciplined application of the most relevant and current scientific evidence. Although many definitions of evidence-based management are available, Briner, Denyer and Rousseau (2009) define it as how leaders can be more effective in all aspects of their jobs including making decisions about employees, teams or organizations through the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of research information. Evidence-based leadership and management © (ELM) is a specific case of evidence-based management that focuses on leadership knowledge and how to apply it. For EBL, these sources of information include the following:

1. The best available scientific evidence – Research published on leadership and management.
2. The best available organizational evidence – interviews and/or surveys from people in your organization.
3. The best available expert evidence – knowledge from experts in the field.
4. Value-added evidence — Information from stakeholders – for example, stock price to shareholders or the organization’s promotion of women and minorities into upper management positions.

Evidence-based leadership & management takes the “guesswork” out of being an effective leader. We have decades of scientific research on what leaders can do to be more effective. In this blog, I will be discussing the four sources of evidence to share this wealth of knowledge with you. The most relevant scientific research on leadership and management will provide you with the tools you need to address the most current challenges managers now face. Second, I believe that you need to conduct interviews and/or surveys with people in your organization to assess what is specific to your situation so that you understand how to correctly apply EBL. Third, I will be interviewing experts from academe, consulting and organizations who will share their knowledge. Finally, I will examine the value-added contributions that leaders today must monitor so that their organizations remain viable – what metrics matter and how you must monitor them.

While evidence-based management is not a new concept, I will provide a focused approach on how leaders can be more effective by employing the four sources of evidence I have described in this post. I look forward to your comments and questions so that I can research answers to your questions.

Briner, R.B., Denyer, D. and Rousseau, D. M. (2009). Evidence-based management: Construct cleanup time? Academy of Management Perspectives, 4, 19-32.

Are you in the In-Group or the Out-Group with your Boss?

If you are in the out-group, you know it. Your boss spends more time with others in your work team. They get more challenging assignments and more resources. You may have seen them get higher pay raises and promotions. Your boss just seems to like them more. How and why did this happen?

Research over the past 40 years by George Graen and his associates has shown that the differentiation of work groups into “trusted assistants” (the in-group) and “hired hands” (the out-group) follows a predictable pattern. The in-group has a lot more of what we call Leader-Member Exchange or LMX. High LMX followers have more influence in decisions, more freedom to innovate in their work, more communication with their boss and they are more satisfied with their work.

In 1987, George Graen and I described the process through which high LMX emerges:

  1. Role-taking: The leader evaluates your abilities and talents. Based on this, she offers you opportunities to show her what you can accomplish. This is the “testing phase” as the boss makes offers and you respond (or fail to respond). Not responding is a ticket to the out-group.
  2. Role-making: In the second phase, the leader and member take part in informal negotiations and a trusted assistant role is created for the member. There is an unspoken understanding of benefits in exchange for hard work and support of the goals of your boss. Mutual trust is built in this stage. This involves both social and economic forms of exchange. For example, loyalty to one another is a relationship exchange and provision of budget for a new project is an economic form.
  3. Role-Routinization: A pattern of ongoing social exchange between the leader and the member has been developed. Being an in-group member means that you are dependable and go above your written job description. You and your boss now have sustained high levels of respect, trust and loyalty and you genuinely like one another. You stop keeping track of favor-doing for one another because you are both dependable and come through for one another.

If you are in the in-group, you hopefully can begin to see how this happened. In future blog posts, I will explore the LMX approach and discuss what you can do to move out of the out-group. Share this post with your boss!